Last update 21-Oct-2007
Certain of the Antiochenes, emboldened against King Antiochus as a result of his defeat, stirred up the populace and proposed that he be banished from the city. There was a great uprising, but when the king prevailed, the ringleaders of the sedition fled in alarm from Syria; gathering in Cilicia they proposed to restore Philip, son of the Philip whose father was Antiochus Grypus. Philip proved receptive to the proposal and arranged a meeting with Azizus the Arab, who gave him a ready welcome, set a diadem on his head, and restored him to the kingship.
|Ruler:||Philip II Philoromaios (“Philip Friend to the Romans”),1 nicknamed Barypous (“Heavy-footed”),2 Seleukid King, date of birth unknown, reigned 67/6 BC (or maybe 67/6 - 66/5 BC),3 died in or after 57 BC4|
|Father:||Philip I Epiphanes Philadelphos, Seleukid King, born c. 124 - 112/111 BC (son of Antiochos VIII Epiphanes Philometor Kallinikos, Seleukid King, and Tryphaina,5 Queen of the Seleukid Empire), reigned 93 - 83 BC, died c. 83 BC (probably of natural causes)|
1 The attribution of this epithet to Philip II is presumptive based on an inscription from Diokaisareia (Diocaesarea): “Philip Philoromaios, son of king Philip, king”. See Grainger, A Seleukid Prosopography and Gazetteer, p. 52-53 (he refers to Monumenta Asia Minoris Antiqua, Vol. III).
2 The epithet Barypous is mentioned by Johannes Malalas, Chronicle, Bk. 9; see Dobias, Φιλιππος Βαρυπους – A Contribution to the History of the Last Seleukids, p. 217. Dobias notes that an old ecclesiastical Slavonic version of Malalas’s Chronicle translates the Greek word βαρυπουν as “thick-footed”. This translation corresponds rather to the Greek παχυπουν. The word παχυπουν is better for a nickname than βαρυπουν and, from the paleographic point of view, the exchange of βαρυπουν and παχυπουν means no serious problem. On the other hand, it cannot be excluded that only the Slavonic translator used the word “thick-footed” instead of the Greek “heavy-footed”. See Dobias, ibid, p. 221, footnote 3.
3 Dobias, Φιλιππος Βαρυπους – A Contribution to the History of the Last Seleukids, pp. 225-227, suggests the following chronology:
|October 6, 69 BC: The Battle of Tigranocerta. After Lucullus’s victory over Tigranes II, Antiochos XIII returned to Syria, he was accepted by the people of Antioch on the Orontes and recognized as legitimate king by Lucullus. His reign lasted only a year.|
|Since at least 67/6 BC, Antiochos XIII was held in captivity by an Arabian sheikh Samsigeramos (alternative spelling: Sampsiceramus).|
|67/6 BC: Philip II is attested as king in Antioch but was later deposed. It is not known if he still reigned in 66/5 BC or if Antioch was a free city for some time after his dethronement.|
|66 BC: The surrender of Tigranes II to Pompey, conclusion of peace between Tigranes II and Rome.|
|66 or 65 BC: Pompey’s legates L. Lollius and Q. Metellus Nepot arrived in Syria with an army (the capture of Damascus). As there was a danger that Pompey would annex Syria, Samsigeramos released Antiochos XIII because he preferred a weak incapable king to a transformation of Syria into a Roman province.|
|65 - 64 BC: The second reign of Antiochos XIII in Antioch. His second reign also lasted only a year.|
|64 BC: Antiochos XIII was deposed by Pompey and Syria became a Roman province.|
See also Bellinger, The End of the Seleucids, pp. 82-85, and Burgess, The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress - The Rise and Fall of Cleopatra II Selene, p. 24.
4 He is mentioned as a marriage candidate for Egyptian queen Berenike IV by Eusebius, Chronicle, pp. 261-262, but Aulus Gabinius, proconsul of Syria, terminated marriage negotiations. Gabinius was proconsul of Syria since 57 BC and Berenike IV second married in the summer of 56 BC (Bennett, Egyptian Royal Genealogy: Berenice IV), so that the event mentioned by Eusebius occurred in 57 BC or at the beginning of 56 BC. Note that Eusebius is speaking about Philip I (the son of Antiochos VIII and Tryphaina), not about his son Philip II, but this is an obvious mistake (see Dobias, Φιλιππος Βαρυπους – A Contribution to the History of the Last Seleukids, pp. 218-221, for a detailed discussion).
Eusebius, Chronicle, pp. 261-262: Philippus (Philip II) whom we mentioned before (i.e. Philip I, who was a subject of the previous paragraph, but this identification is Eusebius’s mistake), the son of Grypus (Antiochos VIII) and of Tryphaena (Tryphaina) the daughter of Ptolemaeus VIII (Ptolemy VIII), was also deposed. He wanted to go to Egypt, because he too had been invited by the inhabitants of Alexandria to rule there, but Gabinius, an officer of Pompeius who was the Roman governor of Syria, stopped him from going. And so the royal dynasty in Syria came to an end with Antiochus (Antiochos XIII) and Philippus.
5 Greek: Τρυφαινα. Bennett, Egyptian Royal Genealogy: Tryphaena, notes that she is “usually called Cleopatra Tryphaena in modern sources, although there is no ancient justification for this”.
- Bellinger, Alfred R.:The End of the Seleucids. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 38, June 1949, pp. 51 - 102. New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
- Bennett, Christopher J.:Egyptian Royal Genealogy. Website, http://www.tyndalehouse.com/Egypt/
- Burgess, Michael:The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress - The Rise and Fall of Cleopatra II Selene. The Celator, Vol. 18, No. 3 (March 2004), pp. 18 - 25.
- Diodorus Siculus:Library of History. Books XXXIII–XL. Translated into English by Francis R. Walton. The Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, Cambridge / Massachusetts - London / England, 2001 (reprint of the 1967 edition).
- Dobias, Josef:Φιλιππος Βαρυπους – A Contribution to the History of the Last Seleukids. Listy Filologické / Folia Philologica (Prague, Czech Republic / Czechoslovakia), Volume 51, 1924, pp. 214 - 227.
- Eusebius of Caesarea:Chronicle (Latin Schoene ed.). Translated into English by Andrew Smith. (Attalus, http://www.attalus.org/translate/eusebius.html)
- Grainger, John D.:A Seleukid Prosopography and Gazetteer. Brill, Leiden - New York - Köln, 1997.