Last update 14-Jan-2007
... Cleopatra Thea, whose extraordinary fortune it was to be the daughter of a king, the sister of two kings, the wife of three, and the mother of four!
... Seleucus, for having assumed the diadem without his mother’s consent, was put to death by her; the other, who, from the size of his nose was named Grypus, was made king by his mother, so far at least that the regal name should belong to him, while all the power of sovereignty was to remain with herself.
|Ruler:||Kleopatra Thea Eueteria (“Kleopatra the Goddess of Plenty”, usually referred simply as Kleopatra Thea), Queen of the Seleukid Empire, born in or before 164 BC, sole reign 126/5 BC, reign in coregency with her son Antiochos VIII 126/5 - 121/0 BC, died 121/0 BC (killed by her son Antiochos VIII)|
|Father:||Ptolemy VI Philometor, King of Egypt, born September/October 186 BC (son of Ptolemy V Epiphanes Eucharistos, King of Egypt, and Kleopatra I Syra, Queen of Egypt), reigned September 180 - July 145 BC (his reign was not continuous and there were co-rulers in some periods), died c. July 145 BC (from head injuries suffered when attacked after a fall from his horse in the battle against Alexander Balas)|
|Mother:||Kleopatra II, Queen of Egypt, born probably before 187 or c. 185/4 BC (daughter of Ptolemy V Epiphanes Eucharistos, King of Egypt, presumably by Kleopatra I Syra, Queen of Egypt), died c. 115 BC|
|Siblings:||(1)||Ptolemy Eupator, born c. October 166 BC, co-regent with Ptolemy VI between c. February 152 and April 152 BC, died c. July/August 152 BC (of an epidemic disease)|
|(2)||Cleopatra III, Euergetis and Philometor Soteira (also known as Kokke), Queen of Egypt, born c. 160/155 BC, died c. September 101 BC (killed by Ptolemy X)|
|(3)||Ptolemy (probably not to be identified with Ptolemy Neos Philopator), born c. 152 BC, died c. 142 BC|
|(4)||possibly Berenice, born c. 163/160 BC, fiancee of Attalos III (King of Pergamon), died probably shortly after c. 150 (possibly murdered)|
|Husbands:||(1)||Alexander I Balas, King of the Seleukid Empire, marriage 150 - 148/7 BC (marriage dissolved by her father)|
|(2)||Demetrios II Nikator, Seleukid King, marriage 148/7 - c. July 138 BC (marriage dissolved by his capture in battle by Mithridates I, King of Parthia); possibly returned to the marriage after Demetrios II was released from captivity by Phraates II, King of Parthia, in c. 129 BC; finally terminated by his murder in 125 BC|
|(3)||Antiochos VII Euergetes, Seleukid King, marriage 138/7 - 129 BC (marriage dissolved by his death in battle in Media fighting Phraates II, King of Parthia)|
|Children:||By Alexander I Balas:|
|(1)||Antiochos VI Epiphanes Dionysos, Seleukid King, born 150 - 148/7 BC, reigned c. 145 - 142/1 BC, died 142/1 BC (killed by Diodotos Tryphon)|
|By Demetrios II Nikator:|
|(2)||Seleukos V, Seleukid King for a very short time in 126/5 BC (killed by his mother Kleopatra Thea)1|
|(3)||Antiochos VIII Epiphanes Philometor Kallinikos, Seleukid King, born c. 142 BC, reigned 126/5 - 97/6 BC, died 97/6 BC (killed by one of his generals, Herakleon)|
|(4)||presumably a daughter, possibly called Laodike2|
|By Antiochos VII Euergetes: 3|
|(5)||Antiochos IX Philopator, Seleukid King, born c. 136/5 BC, reigned 115 - 95 BC, died 95 BC (committed suicide to escape imprisonment after his defeat by Seleukos VI)|
|(6)||presumably another Antiochos|
|(7)||possibly another son Seleukos|
|(8)||presumably one or two next daughters Laodike|
1 Appian, Roman History, 11.69: As soon as Seleucus (Seleukos V) assumed the diadem after his father’s (Demetrios II’s) death, his mother (Kleopatra Thea) shot him dead with an arrow, either fearing lest he should avenge his father or moved by an insane hatred for everybody.
Justin, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, 39.1: One of his sons, Seleucus (Seleukos V), for having assumed the diadem without his mother’s (Kleopatra Thea’s) consent, was put to death by her; the other (Antiochos VIII), who, from the size of his nose was named Grypus, was made king by his mother, so far at least that the regal name should belong to him, while all the power of sovereignty was to remain with herself.
Eusebius, Chronicle, pp. 257-258: Demetrius (Demetrios II) was succeeded by his son Seleucus (Seleukos V), who died soon afterwards as a result of his mother’s (Kleopatra Thea’s) accusations.
2 According to Justin, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, 38.10, she was taken to the East by Antiochos VII on his Parthian expedition and, after his defeat, she was married to Phraates II, King of Parthia. See Bennett, Egyptian Royal Genealogy: Cleopatra Thea, for a detailed discussion.
Justin, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, 38.10: Phraates (Phraates II) had funeral rites performed for him (Antiochos VII) as a king, and married the daughter of Demetrius (of Demetrios II), whom Antiochus had brought with him, and of whom he had become enamoured.
3 Eusebius, Chronicle, pp. 257-258: Antiochus the fifth (Antiochos VII) had three sons and two daughters; the first two, the daughters, were both called Laodice. The third, called Antiochus, fell ill and died, like his sisters. The fourth was Seleucus, who was captured by Arsaces. The fifth was another Antiochus (Antiochos IX), who was brought up by Craterus the eunuch at Cyzicus, where he had fled with Craterus and the rest of the household of Antiochus, through fear of Demetrius (Demetrios II). One of the brothers had already died, along with his sister, so only Antiochus was left, the youngest of the brothers, and because of his residence at Cyzicus he was called Cyzicenus.
See Bennett, Egyptian Royal Genealogy: Cleopatra Thea, for a detailed discussion.
- Appian:Roman History, Book XI - The Syrian Wars. Translated by Horace White. Macmillan and Co., New York, 1899. (The Perseus Digital Library, http://www.perseus.org/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=App.+Syr.+1.1; Livius.org, http://www.livius.org/ap-ark/appian/appian_syriaca_00.html)
- Bellinger, Alfred R.:The End of the Seleucids. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 38, June 1949, pp. 51 - 102. New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
- Bennett, Christopher J.:Egyptian Royal Genealogy. Website, http://www.tyndalehouse.com/Egypt/
- Eusebius of Caesarea:Chronicle (Latin Schoene ed.). Translated into English by Andrew Smith. (Attalus, http://www.attalus.org/translate/eusebius.html)
- Justin (Marcus Junianus Justinus):Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus. Translated by Rev. John Selby Watson, M.A. George Bell and Sons, London, 1897. (See Forum Romanum website, http://www.forumromanum.org/literature/justin/english/index.html - 1853 Edition)