Antiochos XI

Founded 21-Feb-2009
Last update 21-Feb-2009

Genealogy References

... while escaping from the battle, Antiochus the brother of Seleucus rode his horse recklessly and fell headlong into the river Orontes, where he was caught by the current and died.

Eusebius, Chronicle, pp. 260-261


Ruler: Antiochos XI Epiphanes Philadelphos (“Antiochos the Illustrious, Brother-Loving”), Seleukid King, born c. 124 - 112/1 BC, reigned c. 94/3 BC, died c. 94/3 BC1 (drawned while fording the river Orontes after his defeat by Antiochos X)2
Father: Antiochos VIII Epiphanes Philometor Kallinikos, Seleukid King, born c. 142 BC (son of Demetrios II Nikator, Seleukid King, and Kleopatra Thea Eueteria, Queen of the Seleukid Empire), reigned 126/5 - 97/6 BC, died 97/6 BC (killed by one of his generals, Herakleon)
Mother: Tryphaina (alternative spelling Tryphaena),3 Queen of the Seleukid Empire, born c. 141/0 BC (daughter of Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Tryphon, called Physcon or Kakergetes, King of Egypt, and Kleopatra III Euergetis, Queen of Egypt), married Antiochos VIII in 124 BC (as his first wife), died 112/1 or 110/9 BC (executed by Antiochos IX Philopator, Seleukid King)
Siblings: (Tryphaina was probably the mother of all children of Antiochos VIII.4)
  (1) Seleukos VI Epiphanes Nikator, Seleukid King, born c. 124 - 112/1 BC (the eldest brother), reigned 97/6 - 94 BC, died 94 BC (died in Mopsuhestia during an uprising against him)
  (2) Philip I Epiphanes Philadelphos (twin of Antiochos XI), Seleukid King, born c. 124 - 112/1 BC, reigned 93 - 83 BC, died c. 83 BC (probably of natural causes)
  (3) Demetrios III Theos Philopator Soter, Seleukid King, born c. 124 - 112/1 BC, reigned 97/6 - 88/7 BC (defeated and captured by the Parthians), died later in the comfortable Parthian captivity by sickness
  (4) Antiochos XII Dionysos Epiphanes Philopator Kallinikos, Seleukid King, born c. 124 - 112/111 BC (the youngest son), reigned 87/6 - 83/2 BC, died 83/2 BC (killed in battle with the Arabs)
  (5) Laodike Thea, wife of Mithridates I Kallinikos, King of Commagene5


1 See Houghton, Lorber and Hoover, SC II, Vol. 1, p. 577, for the arguments for the dating of Antiochos XI’s reign and death.

2 Eusebius, Chronicle, pp. 260-261: But the surviving son (Antiochos X) of Cyzicenus (Antiochos IX) began a war against Seleucus (Seleukos VI). When their armies met at the city called Mopsuestia in Cilicia, the victory went to Antiochus. Seleucus fled to the city, but when he learnt that the inhabitants intended to burn him alive, he hastened to commit suicide. His two brothers Antiochus (Antiochos XI) and Philippus (Philip I) who were called the Didymi (“twins”), appeared with an army and captured the city by force; then they avenged their brother’s death by destroying the city. However they were confronted by the son of Cyzicenus, and defeated in a battle; while escaping from the battle, Antiochus the brother of Seleucus rode his horse recklessly and fell headlong into the river Orontes, where he was caught by the current and died.

Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 13.368-369: But when Antiochus (Antiochos X), the son of Cyzicenus (Antiochos IX), was king of Syria, Antiochus (Antiochos XI), the brother of Seleucus (Seleukos VI), made war upon him, and was overcome, and destroyed, he and his army. After him, his brother Philip (Philip I) put on the diadem, and reigned over some part of Syria; but Ptolemy Lathyrus (Ptolemy IX) sent for his fourth brother Demetrius (Demetrios III), who was called Eucerus, from Cnidus, and made him king of Damascus.

3 Greek: Τρυφαινα. Bennett, Egyptian Royal Genealogy: Tryphaena, notes that she is “usually called Cleopatra Tryphaena in modern sources, although there is no ancient justification for this”.

4 Tryphaina was certainly the mother of Antiochos XI and Philip I and presumably the mother of Seleukos VI, Demetrios III, Antiochos XII and Laodike Thea. It is possible that Antiochos VIII had a second wife in the near-decade between the death of Tryphaina and his marriage to Kleopatra Selene in 103/2 BC but there is no evidence for it. (Bennett, Egyptian Royal Genealogy: Tryphaena, Cleopatra Selene)

5 See Grainger, A Seleukid Prosopography and Gazetteer, p. 48 - Laodike (8). Their son, Antiochos I Theos Dikaios Epiphanes Philorhomaios Philhellen, was the builder of the Nemrud monument (see, e.g., the website of The International Nemrud Foundation).


Bennett, Christopher J.:Egyptian Royal Genealogy. Website,
Eusebius of Caesarea:Chronicle (Latin Schoene ed.). Translated into English by Andrew Smith. (Attalus,
Grainger, John D.:A Seleukid Prosopography and Gazetteer. Brill, Leiden - New York - Köln, 1997.
Houghton, Arthur; Lorber, Catharine; Hoover, Oliver:Seleucid Coins, A Comprehensive Catalogue. Part II, Volumes 1 and 2. The American Numismatic Society, New York, in association with Classical Numismatic Group, Inc., Lancaster/London, 2008. (abbr. SC II)
Josephus, Flavius:Antiquities of the Jews. Translated by William Whiston. John E. Beardsley, Auburn - Buffalo, 1895. (The Perseus Digital Library,