Submitted by Petr Vesely on
Last update 3-Jul-2008
Posidonius in Bk. XXVIII of the History says that King Antiochus, nicknamed Grypus, held brilliant receptions when celebrating the games at Daphne. At them, gifts were first distributed of whole joints of meat, then afterwards of live geese, hares and gazelles. ‘And he would distribute,’ says Posidonius, ‘gold crowns and quantities of silverware, servants, horses and camels. Each guest had to mount the camel, drink a toast, then take the camel, what was on the camel, and the attendant slave.’
|Ruler:||Antiochos VIII Epiphanes Philometor Kallinikos (“Antiochos the Illustrious, the Mother-loving, the Nobly-victorious”), nicknamed Grypos (“Hook-nose”) and Aspendios (“of Aspendos”),2 Seleukid King, born c. 142 BC, reigned 126/5 - 97/6 BC, died 97/6 BC (killed by one of his generals, Herakleon)|
|Father:||Demetrios II Nikator, Seleukid King, born c. 161 BC (son of Demetrios I Soter, Seleukid King, and Laodike, Seleukid Queen), 1st reign 145 - 138 BC (captured by the Parthians), 2nd reign 129 - 126/5 BC, died 126/5 BC (murdered at Tyre)|
|Mother:||Kleopatra Thea Eueteria (usually referred simply as Kleopatra Thea), Queen of the Seleukid Empire, born in or before 164 BC (daughter of Ptolemy VI Philometor, King of Egypt, and Kleopatra II, Queen of Egypt), married Demetrios II c. 148/7 BC (as his first wife, but Demetrios II was her second husband), sole reign 126/5 BC, reign in coregency with her son Antiochos VIII 126/5 - 121/0 BC, died 121/0 BC (killed by her son Antiochos VIII)|
|Siblings:||(1)||Seleukos V, Seleukid King, very short reign in 126/5 BC, died 126/5 BC (shortly after he became king, he was killed by his mother Kleopatra Thea with her own hand)3|
|(2)||presumably a sister, possibly called Laodike4|
|Wifes:||(1)||Tryphaina (alternative spelling Tryphaena),5 Queen of the Seleukid Empire, born c. 141/0 BC (daughter of Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Tryphon, called Physcon or Kakergetes, King of Egypt, and Kleopatra III Euergetis, Queen of Egypt), married Antiochos VIII in 124 BC (as his first wife), died 112/1 or 110/9 BC (executed by Antiochos IX Philopator, Seleukid King)|
|(2)||Kleopatra Selene, Queen of the Seleukid Empire, born c. 135/0 BC (daughter of Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Tryphon, called Physcon or Kakergetes, King of Egypt, and Kleopatra III Euergetis, Queen of Egypt), married Antiochos VIII in c. 103/2 BC (as his second wife), died 69 BC (executed by Tigranes II the Great, King of Armenia)|
|Children:||(Tryphaina was probably the mother of all children of Antiochos VIII.6)|
|(1)||Seleukos VI Epiphanes Nikator, Seleukid King, born c. 124 - 112/111 BC (the eldest son), reigned 97/6 - 94 BC, died 94 BC (died in Mopsuhestia during an uprising against him)|
|(2)||Antiochos XI Epiphanes Philadelphos (twin of Philip I), Seleukid King, born c. 124 - 112/111 BC, reigned c. 94/3 BC, died c. 94/3 BC (drawned while fording the river Orontes after his defeat by Antiochos X)|
|(3)||Philip I Epiphanes Philadelphos (twin of Antiochos XI), Seleukid King, born c. 124 - 112/111 BC, reigned 93 - 83 BC, died probably 83 BC (?)|
|(4)||Demetrios III Theos Philopator Soter, Seleukid King, born c. 124 - 112/111 BC, reigned 97/6 - 88/7 BC (defeated and captured by the Parthians), died later in the comfortable Parthian captivity by sickness|
|(5)||Antiochos XII Dionysos Epiphanes Philopator Kallinikos, Seleukid King, born c. 124 - 112/111 BC (the youngest son), reigned 87/6 - 83/2 BC, died 83/2 BC (killed in battle with the Arabs)|
|(6)||Laodike Thea, wife of Mithridates I Kallinikos, King of Commagene7|
1 Kidd, Posidonius, Volume 3, p. 138, F72a = Jacoby FGrH 87 F21a.
2 Eusebius, Chronicle, pp. 259-260: He (Antiochos VIII) was given the names Grypus and Philometor. But when faced with an attack by Antiochus Cyzicenus (Antiochos IX) whom we mentioned earlier, who was his half-brother by the same mother (Kleopatra Thea) as well as his nephew on his father’s side (Demetrios II and Antiochos VII, the fathers of Antiochos VIII and Antiochos IX, were brothers), Grypus gave up his kingdom and retired to Aspendus; from which he was given the name Aspendius, as well as Grypus and Philometor.
Porphyry, Chronika, 21: He (Antiochos VIII) was called Grypos and Philometor. When his inheritance fell to Antiochos (Antiochos IX), his brother by the same mother (Kleopatra Thea) and cousin (Demetrios II and Antiochos VII, the fathers of Antiochos VIII and Antiochos IX, were brothers), who was called Kyzikenos, concerning whom we spoke a little before, he left the kingdom, going away to Aspendos, on account of which he was also called Aspendios as well as being called Grypos and Philometor.
The sobriquet Grypos is also mentioned by Appian (Roman History, 11.69), Diodorus Siculus (Library of History, 40.1a) and Poseidonios of Apamea (at Athenaios of Naukratis, Deipnosophistai, 12.540A-B = Ed. Kidd 72a, 6.246D = Ed. Kidd 74 and 4.153B-C = Ed. Kidd 75).
3 Appian, Roman History, 11.69: As soon as Seleucus (Seleukos V) assumed the diadem after his father’s (Demetrios II’s) death, his mother (Kleopatra Thea) shot him dead with an arrow, either fearing lest he should avenge his father or moved by an insane hatred for everybody.
Justin, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, 39.1: One of his sons, Seleucus (Seleukos V), for having assumed the diadem without his mother’s (Kleopatra Thea’s) consent, was put to death by her; the other (Antiochos VIII), who, from the size of his nose was named Grypus, was made king by his mother, so far at least that the regal name should belong to him, while all the power of sovereignty was to remain with herself.
Eusebius, Chronicle, pp. 257-258: Demetrius (Demetrios II) was succeeded by his son Seleucus (Seleukos V), who died soon afterwards as a result of his mother’s (Kleopatra Thea’s) accusations.
4 According to Justin, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, 38.10, she was taken to the East by Antiochos VII on his Parthian expedition and, after his defeat, she was married to Phraates II, King of Parthia. See Bennett, Egyptian Royal Genealogy: Cleopatra Thea, for a detailed discussion.
Justin, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, 38.10: Phraates (Phraates II) had funeral rites performed for him (Antiochos VII) as a king, and married the daughter of Demetrius (of Demetrios II), whom Antiochus had brought with him, and of whom he had become enamoured.
5 Greek: Τρυφαινα. Bennett, Egyptian Royal Genealogy: Tryphaena, notes that she is “usually called Cleopatra Tryphaena in modern sources, although there is no ancient justification for this”.
6 Tryphaina was certainly the mother of Antiochos XI and Philip I and presumably the mother of Seleukos VI, Demetrios III, Antiochos XII and Laodike Thea. It is possible that Antiochos VIII had a second wife in the near-decade between the death of Tryphaina and his marriage to Kleopatra Selene in 103/2 BC but there is no evidence for it. (Bennett, Egyptian Royal Genealogy: Tryphaena, Cleopatra Selene)
7 See Grainger, A Seleukid Prosopography and Gazetteer, p. 48 - Laodike (8). Their son, Antiochos I Theos Dikaios Epiphanes Philorhomaios Philhellen, was the builder of the Nemrud monument (see, e.g., the website of The International Nemrud Foundation).
- Appian:Roman History, Book XI - The Syrian Wars. Translated by Horace White. Macmillan and Co., New York, 1899. (The Perseus Digital Library, http://www.perseus.org/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=App.+Syr.+1.1; Livius.org, http://www.livius.org/ap-ark/appian/appian_syriaca_00.html)
- Bennett, Christopher J.:Egyptian Royal Genealogy. Website, http://www.tyndalehouse.com/Egypt/
- Diodorus Siculus:Library of History. Books XXXIII–XL. Translated into English by Francis R. Walton. The Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, Cambridge / Massachusetts - London / England, 2001 (reprint of the 1967 edition).
- Eusebius of Caesarea:Chronicle (Latin Schoene ed.). Translated into English by Andrew Smith. (Attalus, http://www.attalus.org/translate/eusebius.html)
- Grainger, John D.:A Seleukid Prosopography and Gazetteer. Brill, Leiden - New York - Köln, 1997.
- Justin (Marcus Junianus Justinus):Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus. Translated by Rev. John Selby Watson, M.A. George Bell and Sons, London, 1897. (See Forum Romanum website, http://www.forumromanum.org/literature/justin/english/index.html - 1853 Edition)
- Kidd, I. G. (Editor):Posidonius. Volume 3, The Translation of the Fragments. Cambridge University Press, 1999.
- Porphyry of Tyre:Chronika (Greek fragments; Thesaurus Linguae Graecae). Translated into English by Oliver D. Hoover (published at Oliver D. Hoover’s website SeleukidEmpire.org).